Ep.K056: 改朝換代 加州帶頭拚氫經濟 California Is Trying to Jump-Start the Hydrogen Economy

2021.02

通勤學英語_每日英語跟讀 2月號

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每日英語跟讀 Ep.K056: California Is Trying to Jump-Start the Hydrogen Economy
Since President George W. Bush fueled a minivan with hydrogen 15 years ago, the promise of cars and trucks powered by the fuel has come up mostly empty.

15年前,時任美國總統的小布希為一輛廂型休旅車加上氫燃料,發展氫能小客車和貨車的美好期盼迄今卻大抵落空。

That hydrogen pump, in Washington, closed long ago. But in California, the beginnings of a hydrogen economy may finally be dawning after many fits and starts.

華府的那座加氫站早已停用,然而在加州,氫經濟在幾經周折之後,可能真的要起步了。

Dozens of hydrogen buses are lumbering down city streets, while more and larger fueling stations are appearing from San Diego to San Francisco, financed by the state and the federal government. With the costs of producing and shipping hydrogen coming down, California is setting ambitious goals to phase out vehicles that run on fossil fuels in favor of batteries and hydrogen.

在州政府和聯邦出資之下,從聖地牙哥到舊金山,數十輛氫動力公車緩緩行駛於城市街道,更多且更大的加氫站也一一出現。由於氫製造和運輸的成本下降,加州立定遠大目標,要逐步淘汰化石燃料車,轉向電動車和氫能車。

Some energy executives said they expect investment in hydrogen to accelerate under President-elect Joe Biden, who made climate change a big part of his campaign and proposed a $2 trillion plan to tackle the problem.

一些能源業高管預期,對氫能的投資會在總統當選人拜登上台後加速成長。拜登以遏制氣候變遷為重要政見,並提出一項2兆美元的因應計畫。

A recent McKinsey & Co. study estimated that the hydrogen economy could generate $140 billion in annual revenue by 2030 and support 700,000 jobs. The study projected that hydrogen could meet 14% of total American energy demand by 2050.

管理顧問公司麥肯錫最近在一份研究中估計,到2030年時,氫經濟每年能創造1400億美元營收,支撐70萬個工作機會。這份研究預測,到2050年,氫將能滿足全美14%的能源需求。

The use of hydrogen, the lightest and most abundant substance in the universe, is still in its infancy, and California is determined to be its cradle in the United States.The state now has roughly 40 fueling stations, with dozens more under construction. While those numbers are tiny compared with the 10,000 gasoline stations across the state, officials have high hopes.

氫是宇宙中最輕且最豐富的物質,人類利用氫能還在初始階段,而加州決心成為美國氫能利用的搖籃。加州目前約有40個加氫站,還有數十個在興建中。雖然加氫站數量與全加州一萬個加油站相比微不足道,但官員仍滿懷希望。

With about 7,500 hydrogen vehicles on the road, an aggressive state program of incentives and subsidies from cap-and-trade dollars envisions 50,000 hydrogen light-duty vehicles by mid-decade and a network of 1,000 hydrogen stations by 2030.

目前加州約有7500輛氫能車上路,州政府積極利用取自「總量管制與排放交易」的財源來進行補貼和獎勵,希望達到2025年左右有5萬輛輕型氫能車上路,2030年有1000個加氫站的目標。

Hydrogen-powered vehicles are similar to electric cars. But unlike electric cars, which have large batteries, these cars have hydrogen tanks and fuel cells that turn the gas into electricity. The cars refuel and accelerate quickly, and they can go for several hundred miles on a full tank. They emit only water vapor, which makes them appealing to California cities that are trying to reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

氫能車類似電動車,不同的是,電動車的電池很大,氫能車則有氫氣儲存槽和把氫氣轉換成電力的燃料電池。氫能車補充燃料和加速都很快,氫氣槽加滿後能跑幾百哩。氫能車只會釋出蒸氣,對於努力減少汙染和溫室氣體排放量的加州很有吸引力。

“Almost any objective analysis for getting to zero emissions includes hydrogen,” said Jack Brouwer, director of the National Fuel Cell Research Center at the University of California, Irvine.

爾灣加州大學國家燃料電池研究中心主任傑克‧布勞爾說:「幾乎所有關於如何達到零排放的客觀分析都會提到氫。」

Source article: https://udn.com/news/story/6904/5106534

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